LONG-TERM CULTURAL IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION: Evidence of migrants as drivers of New World individualism and Old World collectivism
- 29 Mar 2017
People who believed in individualism, as reflected in their having less common names, were more likely to emigrate from Scandinavian countries to the United States, leaving more collectivist-minded compatriots behind. The long-term impact has been that Scandinavian districts that experienced more emigration are still relatively more collectivist today than those that experienced less – while the United States is one of the most individualistic countries in the world today.
These are among the findings of new research by Anne Sofie Beck Knudsen, to be presented at the Economic History Society’s 2017 annual conference. Her study constructs historical indicators of individualistic and collectivist culture from the distribution of names in historical birth registers and from the written language of local newspapers around the turn of the twentieth century.
She then documents the prevalence of individualistic migration during the settlement of the United States. Among inhabitants of major migrant-sending countries like Norway and Sweden, only those with more uncommon names were more likely to migrate. This cultural effect remains even when considering a host of other potential explanations related to economic prospects and family background.
The author explains the findings in more detail:
Although a hotly debated topic, we know surprisingly little of the long-term cultural impact of international migration. Does it boil down to the risk of clashes between different cultures; or do we see cultural changes in migrant-sending and migrant-receiving countries along other dimensions as well?
These questions are at the core of my research. Using novel empirical data, I document how past mass migration flows carried values of individualism across the Atlantic ocean from the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth century. This inter-cultural exchange was so significant that its impact is still observed today.
When talking about individualism versus collectivism, I refer to the emphasis on independence from society that is prevalent in these cultures. With this in mind, it becomes clear why it has a role to play. The act of migration involves leaving familiar surroundings to embark on a journey where you are bound to rely on yourself. An individual with strong ties to the surroundings will be less likely to undergo this act. Collectivists are thus less likely migrate, while the opposite is true for individualists.
To test the idea of individualistic migration and its long-term impact empirically, I construct novel indicators of culture, which allow me to go back and study the past. I look at two everyday cultural manifestations: how we name our children; and how we speak our language.
Giving a child commonplace names like ‘John’ reflects parents of a more conformist motivation as they, perhaps unconsciously, are more concerned about their child fitting in rather than standing out. Likewise, the relative use of singular (‘I’, ‘mine’, ‘me’) over plural (‘we’, ‘ours’, us) personal pronouns tells us something about the focus on the individual over the collective.
I construct historical indicators of culture from the distribution of names in historical birth registers and from the written language of local newspapers at the time.
With new data in hand, I can document the prevalence of individualistic migration during the settlement of the United States around the turn of the twentieth century. Among inhabitants of major migrant-sending countries like Norway and Sweden, only those with more uncommon names were more likely actually migrate to. This cultural effect remains even when considering a host of other potential explanations related to economic prospects and family background.
If more individualistic types are more likely to migrate, we would expect to observe an impact on the overall culture of a given location. That is exactly what I find. Districts in Sweden and Norway that experienced high emigration flows of people with an individualistic spirit did indeed become more collectivistic – both in terms of child naming trends and in written language pronoun use.
This leaves us with the question of whether an impact from this historical event is still visible today. Does international migration have long-term cultural consequences other than the risk of producing cultural clashes?
In my study, that seems to be the case. Scandinavian districts that experienced more emigration are still relatively more collectivist today than those that experienced less. Moreover, it is widely agreed that New World countries like the United States are the most individualistic in the world today – a fact that seems to be explained by the type of migrants they once received.
Anne Sofie Beck Knudsen
University of Copenhagen